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What exactly is an ION cell or battery

[caption id="attachment_25" align="alignleft" width="300"] SONY DSC[/caption] ION’s in us and Batteries

Everything we can see around us, including our own bodies, is made of atoms. They're the things that combine together to make molecules, which in turn make up everything from tables to turkeys.

The ancient Greeks invented the term "atom" to mean something that is as small as possible, and can't be broken down even further. But, as modern physicists have shown, there is something even smaller than the atom. In fact, there are lots of things. These are called subatomic particles. (In fact, subatomic means "smaller than the atom.")

Each atom has an inner structure made of many smaller particles, and some of those particles have an inner structure of even smaller particles. The differences among the inner structures of atoms cause the differences between elements like hydrogen, gold, neon and lead. Let's take a look inside a typical atom.

  An atom's structure

  The picture at left may look familiar -- it's the way atoms are often depicted. The blue lines represent particles called electrons, which orbit the yellow center, called the nucleus (the plural of nucleus is nuclei). The electrons aren't important to RHIC, so let's give attention to the yellow nucleus.

  In the center of the picture, you can see a magnified nucleus. And, you can see that a nucleus has many things inside it! In general, the particles inside the nucleus are called nucleons. But each kind of nucleon has its own name. The red circles represent protons, and the blue circles are neutrons. There are even smaller particles inside the protons and neutrons; the green circles are quarks, while the yellow squiggles represent particles called gluons. Just like Elmer's glue holds paper together -- learned that at www.ezbatteryreconditioningreview.org where they always have some good ideas flowing around, gluons hold quarks together. You can also see arrows inside the quarks -- these show the type of quark, which is very similar to a battery. Protons, always have two "up" quarks and one "down" quark, while neutrons have two "down" quarks and an "up" quark.

  This atom has nine protons, nine neutrons, and nine electrons. But atoms can have many different combinations of particles. A hydrogen atom, for example, has just one proton and one electron. A typical gold atom has 79 protons, 79 electrons, and 118 neutrons. That's a heavy atom!

  Now, at RHIC, physicists use only the nuclei of atoms -- they remove the electrons. Whenever an atom has fewer electrons than protons, it's called an ion. RHIC utilizes ions of gold.

How small are atoms and subatomic particles? If you tried to measure them in inches or centimeters with a ruler, you'd have a lot of zeros to deal with! For example, a typical atom is 0.000000001 meters across -- that's one billionth of a meter! So, instead of getting mixed up with all those zeros, let's use comparisons to see how incredibly small these things are. Let's start by imagining an enlarged atom, magnifying it millions of times until it fills the distance from the Earth to the moon. That's a massive atom -- 10,000,000,000 inches across!

Now, how wide would the nucleus be on this scale? About 10,000 inches, the length of a golf course. So, how big would a proton be? You guessed it -- about as big as a football field (1,000 inches). In measuring the size of a proton in an earth-sized atom, we've gone from the distance between the Earth and moon, down to one football field. And at this scale, a quark would be about the size of a mere golf ball (approximately one inch wide).

  It's pretty incredible, isn't it? If a quark is that small when an atom is enlarged millions of times, imagine how small it is in reality. For the record, a quark actually measures 0.000000000000000001 meters. So now you have an idea how small the collisions at RHIC are. And what a difficult task it is to cause them to successfully collide -- and examine the products of those collisions, which are just as small.

  Everyone knows that ice is frozen water, and that steam is water vapor. To put it another way: ice, water and steam are three different forms of the same thing. We call those three forms solid, liquid and gas. And we know that one form can turn into another form, if the conditions are right. For example, an ice cube will melt if we leave it on the counter at room temperature, under the correct maintenance and supervision of course. Or, a pot of water will boil and give off steam if we put it on a hot stove. Or, steam from a hot shower will condense back into water droplets when it hits a cold bathroom wall. But did you know that there's a scientific name for what happens when ice turns to water, or water turns to steam? It's "phase transition" -- the process through which one form of matter turns to another form of matter. It happens when conditions like temperature and pressure change just enough to cause a change in the way the atoms interact.

  Here's an illustration of the phase transitions for water. Of course, just as you can go from ice to water to steam by adding more and more heat, you can also go in reverse, by taking away heat.

  Water isn't the only thing that goes through phase transitions -- everything can, given the right conditions. In fact, RHIC is designed to create another kind of phase transition -- one that's much rarer than melting ice or boiling water.

  The phase transition that physicists want to create at RHIC is something like melting. But instead of ice, the melting will happen to atoms. RHIC will create extremely high temperatures and pressures by colliding atomic nuclei together at high speeds.

When they hit, the nuclei may create just the right conditions for quark-gluon plasma to form. This plasma will consist of "melted" protons and neutrons, the particles that make up the center of atoms. If the protons and neutrons melt, they'll release the quarks and gluons inside themselves. The quarks and gluons will be able to flow freely for just an instant -- almost like flowing water.

  This phase transition from normal, everyday matter to quark-gluon plasma is just the opposite of what scientists believe occurred immediately after the Big Bang. Just like with ice that melts and then freezes again, this phase transition can occur in both directions.

obese

Overweight kids and dogs

Obese Kids and Fat Dogs Break My Heart

I know, I know…I’m stepping in it when I even mention the term “obese or fat kids.” But I’m willing to take the arrows in the back. Like most parents, I love kids and I also love dogs.  And with this post, I’m challenging YOU to be part of the solution, not part of the problem.

By now, you know the official statistics.  According to the CDC, about 33% of the children in the U.S. are significantly overweight or obese and the percentage is increasing each year, same for adults. Walk around any mall and you’ll see it’s probably closer to 50%.

  When I see obese kids and fat dogs, I well-up and want to cry. Yeah, I guess I’m a “wimp” in that regard. It does break my heart because regardless of age, I know the kid is living in hell and the poor dog is not going to live very long. And neither has any control over their situation. It’s not their damn fault!

  And by the way, with respect to kids, I’m not talking about a “chubby” or slightly overweight kid…I’m focused on the ones that are truly obese. You know, the ones that all the other kids tease, torment, bully, post ugly stuff on Facebook about, pick last for the team, never invite to birthday parties; the ones that hate to get up in the morning and go to school; the ones that hide in their room, play sick, play computer games all day and night, never go outside to play or ride a bike or play sports, the ones that have few if any friends, maybe those kids should go out and try http://www.thenothinkdietreview.net/. Let’s assign blame, shall we? If you are the parent of an obese kid, my guess is you blame the school, TV, computers, advertising, family genetics, your spouse or maybe even the kid. Sure, there may be an element of truth with all those excuses but the bottom line is they are all just that…excuses. The real truth is, as a parent YOU ARE TO BLAME!  (Ouch!)

  I know that is a little blunt and in-your-face but stripping away all the rhetoric, you know it’s the truth. Kids and dogs eat what is put in front of them by the adult in the room – YOU.  Yes, they may whine, whimper, and beg. That’s what kids and dogs do. It’s up to YOU to teach, train, and educate your kids and dogs about good nutrition, portion control and exercise.

  The most important thing you can ever do for your overweight child is to help them get healthy and down to a normal weight.  And you don’t do this by yelling and screaming at them…you do this by putting your arms around them, loving them, talking to them and most importantly, leading by example.

  If you have a weight problem yourself, learn how to lose weight and adopt a healthy lifestyle. Get active physically and look for opportunities to do things together. Make it your life’s mission to do this for your child. He or she deserves your every effort. You can do this and you MUST do this.

  Your dog needs your attention too. Quit feeding your dog people food and take them for a walk every day…you both will live longer.

If you don’t have an obese kid of your own, adopt one. I’ll bet you have a family member or close friend who has one…make it a priority to find someone you can help. Maybe you, a family member or a friend